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Edamame & Soba Noodle Salad

Edamame & Soba Noodle Salad

9 ingredients · 15 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. Cook the soba noodles according to the directions on the package. With two minutes remaining, add the edamame. Drain and rinse with cold water until completely cooled.
  2. Meanwhile, stir together the olive oil, tamari, rice vinegar, maple syrup, and ginger in a bowl.
  3. Place the soba noodles and edamame into a large bowl with the carrots. Add the dressing and toss well to combine. Divide into bowls and top with cilantro. Enjoy!

 

Ingredients:

 

1 3/4 ozs Shiratake Noodles (dry, uncooked)

1/2 cup Frozen Edamame

1 1/2 tsps Extra Virgin Olive Oil

1 1/2 tsps Tamari

1 1/2 tsps Rice Vinegar

2 1/4 tsps Raw Honey

1/4 tsp Ginger (fresh, minced)

1/4 cup Matchstick Carrots

2 tbsps Cilantro (chopped)

 

Nutrition Amount per serving:

Calories 218 Cholesterol 0mg
Fat 11g Sodium 533mg
Carbs 24g Vitamin A 2605IU
Fiber 5g Vitamin C 8mg
Sugar 16g Calcium 60mg
Protein 11g Iron 3mg

 

Notes:

 

Leftovers

Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to four days.

Serving Size

One serving equals approximately two cups.

More Flavor

Add sriracha to the dressing.

Additional Toppings

Top with sesame seeds or chopped peanuts.

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

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Beef Chow Mein

Beef Chow Mein

8 ingredients · 20 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. Heat the oil in a large pan over medium-high heat. Cook the onions and garlic for two to three minutes. Add the beef, ginger, and salt. Cook for six to eight minutes, or until cooked through.
  2. Stir in the coconut aminos and broccoli slaw. Cook for two minutes, or until warmed through. Divide onto plates and enjoy!

 

Ingredients:

 

1/3 tsp Extra Virgin Olive Oil

1/4 Sweet Onion (large, diced)

3/4 Garlic (cloves, minced)

4 ozs Stewing Beef (sliced or cubed)

1/4 tsp Ginger (peeled, grated)

1/8 tsp Sea Salt (to taste)

2 1/4 tsps Coconut Aminos (to taste)

1 1/4 cups Broccoli Slaw

 

Nutrition Amount per serving:

Calories 240 Cholesterol 71mg
Fat 7g Sodium 631mg
Carbs 17g Vitamin A 7508IU
Fiber 3g Vitamin C 87mg
Sugar 9g Calcium 61mg
Protein 28g Iron 3mg

 

Notes:

Leftovers

Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to three days.

Serving Size

One serving equals approximately 1 1/2 cups.

Stewing Beef

This recipe was tested with stewing beef sliced into 1/2 cm pieces. Adjust the cooking time as needed based on the thickness of the beef slices/cubes.

More Flavor

Add a splash of orange juice and/or fish sauce.

Additional Toppings

Top with roasted cashews or peanuts.

Make it Vegan

Use crumbled tofu or tempeh instead of beef.

No Coconut Aminos

Use tamari or soy sauce instead.

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

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Baked Chicken with Kiwi Avocado Salsa

Baked Chicken with Kiwi Avocado Salsa

9 ingredients · 30 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. Preheat the oven to 400ºF (205ºC).
  2. Place the chicken in a baking dish and drizzle with 1/2 of the oil and season with 1/2 of the garlic powder and salt and pepper to taste. Bake for about 25 to 30 minutes, or until the chicken is cooked through. Let the chicken rest for five to 10 minutes before slicing.
  3. Meanwhile, in a mixing bowl combine the kiwi, avocado, and red onion. Add the lime juice, cilantro, and the remaining oil and garlic powder. Season with salt and pepper and add more lime juice to taste if needed.
  4. To serve, divide the chicken between plates and top with the kiwi avocado salsa. Enjoy!

 

Ingredients:

 

5 ozs Chicken Breast

1 1/2 tsps Extra Virgin Olive Oil

1/4 tsp Garlic Powder (divided)

Sea Salt & Black Pepper (to taste)

1 Kiwi (peeled and chopped)

1/2 Avocado (chopped)

2 tbsps Red Onion

1/4 Lime (large, juiced)

1 1/2 tbsps Cilantro (chopped)

 

Nutrition Amount per serving:

Calories 446 Cholesterol 103mg
Fat 26g Sodium 75mg
Carbs 22g Vitamin A 356IU
Fiber 9g Vitamin C 79mg
Sugar 8g Calcium 50mg
Protein 35g Iron 1mg

 

Notes:

Leftovers

Refrigerate the chicken in an airtight container for up to three days and the salsa up to one day.

Serving Size

One serving is approximately 5 oz chicken and 1/2 cup of salsa.

More Flavor

Add fresh garlic, jalapeno, or ground cumin to the salsa. Season the chicken with other dried herbs and spices.

No Red Onion

Use yellow onion or green onion instead.

No Chicken

Serve with fish, shrimp, or tofu.

Make it a Meal

Serve with quinoa, rice, cauliflower rice, salad or steam vegetables.

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

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Tomato, Parsley & Chia Mini Egg White Bites

Tomato, Parsley & Chia Mini Egg White Bites

 5 ingredients · 25 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. Preheat the oven to 350ºF (175ºC).
  2. In a bowl, combine the egg whites, tomato, parsley, chia seeds, and
  3. Scoop the mixture into lined (or greased) mini muffin Bake for 20 minutes or until cooked through. Let cool before serving. Enjoy!

Ingredients:

1/4 cup Egg Whites

1/2 Tomato (small, diced, juices drained)

1/4 cup Parsley (chopped)

3/4 tsp Chia Seeds

1/8 tsp Sea Salt

Nutrition Amount per serving:

Calories 61 Cholesterol 0mg
Fat 1g Sodium 428mg
Carbs 4g Vitamin A 2111IU
Fiber 2g Vitamin C 29mg
Sugar 1g Calcium 45mg
Protein 8g Iron 2mg

Notes:

Leftovers

Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to three days.

Serving Size

One serving equals approximately five mini muffins.

More Flavor

Add a splash of tamari or soy sauce. Use whole eggs or a mixture of egg whites and whole eggs.

Additional Toppings

Add goat cheese, feta cheese, or vegan cheese.

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

 

 

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Steak & Tomato Skewer Salad

Steak & Tomato Skewer Salad

 6 ingredients · 15 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. Pierce the steak and cherry tomatoes onto the barbecue Season with salt and black pepper.
  2. Grill over medium-high heat, rotating occasionally for about eight to nine minutes or until your desired doneness is
  3. Divide the spinach and cucumbers onto Top with the steak and tomato skewers. Enjoy!

Ingredients:

6 ozs Top Sirloin Steak (cut into one-inch pieces)

1 cup Cherry Tomatoes

2 Barbecue Skewers

Sea Salt & Black Pepper (to taste)

1 1/2 cups Baby Spinach

1/2 Cucumber (medium, sliced)

Nutrition Amount per serving:

Calories 424 Cholesterol 133mg
Fat 25g Sodium 133mg
Carbs 13g Vitamin A 5619IU
Fiber 4g Vitamin C 37mg
Sugar 7g Calcium 126mg
Protein 37g Iron 5mg

Notes:

Leftovers

Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to three days.

Serving Size

One serving equals approximately two 12-inch skewers and two cups of salad.

More Flavor

Marinate the beef in balsamic, tamari, or barbecue sauce. Serve with your dressing of choice.

Additional Toppings

Avocado, peppers, olives, and/or crumbled cheese.

Barbecue Skewers

If using wooden skewers, be sure to soak in water for at least 30 minutes before grilling

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

 

 

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Leek & Fennel Soup with Chicken

Leek & Fennel Soup with Chicken

 7 ingredients · 10 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. Heat the water in a large pan over medium-high Add the leeks and cook for eight to 10 minutes or until the leeks have softened and wilted down. Add the garlic, thyme, and salt and cook for another minute.
  2. Add the fennel and the broth and stir to Bring the soup to a boil and then reduce and simmer for 15 to 20 minutes until the fennel is very tender.
  3. Transfer the soup to a blender or food processor and blend until very Do this in batches if necessary and add more broth to thin the soup if needed. Season the soup with additional salt to taste.
  4. To serve, divide the soup between bowls and top with warmed shredded Enjoy!

Ingredients:

2 tbsps Water

3/4 Leeks (medium, trimmed and chopped)

1/2 Garlic (clove, minced)

3/4 tsp Thyme (fresh)

1/16 tsp Sea Salt

1/4 bulb Fennel (large, chopped)

3/4 cup Vegetable Broth

2 1/2 ozs Chicken Breast, Cooked (shredded)

Nutrition Amount per serving:

Calories 177 Cholesterol 74mg
Fat 3g Sodium 720mg
Carbs 16g Vitamin A 2122IU
Fiber 3g Vitamin C 17mg
Sugar 6g Calcium 85mg
Protein 24g Iron 2mg

Notes:

Leftovers

Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to three days. Freeze the soup separate from the chicken for longer.

Serving Size

One serving is approximately 1 1/4 cups of soup.

Additional Toppings

Fresh thyme or fennel fronds.

Make it Vegan

Omit the chicken or top with sauteed mushrooms instead.

No Vegetable Broth

Use chicken broth or bone broth instead.

More Fat

Omit the water and saute the leeks in some oil instead.

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

 

 

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Golden Turmeric Latte

Golden Turmeric Latte

 7 ingredients · 10 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. Grate the ginger then squeeze the juice out of it into a saucepan. Discard the pulp. Add the remaining ingredients to the saucepan and place over medium heat. Heat through for about 3 to 5 minutes, not letting it come to a boil. Whisk continuously.
  2. Carefully transfer into a mason jar and seal with a lid. Shake vigorously for about 30 seconds, or until a foam starts to form. (Note: You can also use a blender for this step, but the turmeric can stain the blender cup.) Pour into glasses through a sieve and enjoy!

Ingredients:

1 1/2 tsps Ginger (grated)

1/2 cup Canned Coconut Milk

1/2 cup Water

1/2 tsp Turmeric (powder)

1 1/2 tsps Raw Honey

1/4 tsp Cinnamon

3/4 tsp Coconut Oil

 

Nutrition Amount per serving:

Calories 281 Cholesterol 0mg
Fat 25g Sodium 34mg
Carbs 14g Vitamin A 2IU
Fiber 1g Vitamin C 0mg
Sugar 10g Calcium 26mg
Protein 2g Iron 1mg

Notes:

Use Fresh Turmeric Root

Skip the turmeric powder and use fresh turmeric root instead. Peel turmeric root and grate. Measure out about 1 tbsp grated turmeric root per serving.

Avoid a Mess

Rinse all glasses and mugs out right after use to avoid turmeric stains. Use baking soda on turmeric stains if they do happen.

On-the-Go

Add all ingredients except water to a mason jar. When ready to drink, just add hot water from the kettle and shake up for a warming, anti-inflammatory snack.

Vegan

Use maple syrup to sweeten instead of honey.

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

 

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Sunbutter Pumpkin Protein Balls

Sunbutter Pumpkin Protein Balls

 6 ingredients · 10 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. In a mixing bowl, combine the coconut flour, protein powder, sunflower seed butter, pumpkin, and oat milk. Mix well until a firm batter forms. Add more oat milk one tablespoon at a time if the mixture is too dry/crumbly
  2. Form the dough into one-inch balls. Repeat until all the dough is used up. Firmly roll each ball in a small bowl of hemp seeds to form a coating (optional). Store in the fridge or freezer until ready to

Ingredients:

1 1/4 tsps Coconut Flour

2/3 tsp Vanilla Protein Powder

1 1/4 tsps Sunflower Seed Butter

1 1/4 tsps Pureed Pumpkin

1/3 tsp Oat Milk (unsweetened, plain)

1 1/4 tsps Hemp Seeds (for coating, optional)

Nutrition Amount per serving:

Calories 81 Cholesterol 0mg
Fat 6g Sodium 9mg
Carbs 4g Vitamin A 957IU
Fiber 2g Vitamin C 0mg
Sugar 1g Calcium 16mg
Protein 4g Iron 1mg

Notes:

Leftovers

Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to seven days, or freeze if longer.

Serving Size

One serving equals one ball, about one inch in diameter.

More Flavor

Add pumpkin pie spice, maple syrup and/or vanilla extract.

No Hemp Seeds

Roll in crushed nuts, cocoa powder, pumpkin seeds or sunflower seeds.

No Sunflower Seed Butter

Use almond butter, tahini or pumpkin seed butter instead.

Protein Powder

This recipe was developed and tested using a plant-based protein powder. If using another type of protein powder, note that results may vary.

Coconut Flour

This recipe was developed and tested using Bob’s Red Mill Coconut Flour. If using another type of coconut flour, note that results may vary.

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

 

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Peach Green Tea Smoothie copy

Peach Green Tea Smoothie copy

 5 ingredients · 5 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. Add everything to a blender and blend until smooth. Pour into a glass and enjoy!

Ingredients:

1 1/2 cups Green Tea (strong brewed, chilled)

1 1/2 cups Frozen Peaches

1/2 cup Frozen Cauliflower

3 tbsps Lemon Juice

1 1/2 tbsps Raw Honey

Nutrition Amount per serving:

Calories 211 Cholesterol 0mg
Fat 1g Sodium 20mg
Carbs 54g Vitamin A 765IU
Fiber 6g Vitamin C 61mg
Sugar 45g Calcium 32mg
Protein 5g Iron 1mg

Notes:

More Fat

Add chia seeds or flax seeds.

Make it Vegan

Use maple syrup or another liquid sweetener instead.

Make it Green

Add spinach or kale.

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

 

 

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Dark Chocolate Almond Mousse

Dark Chocolate Almond Mousse

7 ingredients · 3 hours 5 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. Add all the ingredients to a high-speed blender and blend for 2 to 3 minutes until
    thickened, smooth and creamy
  2. Transfer to a bowl and refrigerate until chilled, about 3 hours. Enjoy

Ingredients:

1/3 cup Unsweetened Almond Milk
1 2/3 tbsps Chia Seeds
1 2/3 tbsps Cocoa Powder
2 1/3 tsps Almond Butter
1 3/4 tsps Monk Fruit Sweetener
1/4 tsp Vanilla Extract
1/8 tsp Sea Salt

Nutrition Amount per serving:

Calories 206 Cholesterol 0mg
Fat 16g Sodium 303mg
Carbs 23g Vitamin A 200IU
Fiber 10g Vitamin C 0mg
Sugar 1g Calcium 342mg
Protein 8g Iron 3mg

Notes:

Leftovers

Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to five days. Stir well before serving.

Serving Size

One serving is roughly 1/2 cup.

Additional Toppings

Extra cocoa powder, chopped nuts, fresh berries and/or shredded coconut.

No Almond Butter

Use another nut or seed butter instead

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

 

 

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Cuban Mojo Chicken

Cuban Mojo Chicken

8 ingredients · 1 hour 20 minutes · 1 serving

Directions

  1. To a zipper-lock bag, add the zest and juice of the orange, juice of the lime, garlic, oil, cilantro, cumin, and salt, and mix well. Add the chicken thighs to the bag and marinate for at least 30 minutes.
  2. Preheat the oven to 400ºF (204ºC).
  3. Transfer the chicken thighs and the marinade to a baking dish and bake for 40 to 45 minutes or until the chicken has browned.
  4. Divide the chicken between plates and spoon the cooking liquid over top if desired. Enjoy!

 

Like it Spicy

Add jalapeno or red pepper flakes.

Ingredients:

1/8 Navel Orange (medium, zested, juiced)

1/8 Lime (juiced)

2/3 Garlic (clove, minced)

1 tsp Extra Virgin Olive Oil

1 1/3 tbsps Cilantro (finely chopped)

1/8 tsp Cumin

1/16 tsp Sea Salt

4 ozs Chicken Thighs with Skin (bone-in, trimmed)

Nutrition Amount per serving:

 Calories     308  Cholesterol  111mg
Fat 23g Sodium 291mg
Carbs 5g Vitamin A 244IU
Fiber 1g Vitamin C 17mg
Sugar 2g Calcium 27mg
Protein 19g Iron 1mg

 

Notes:

Leftovers
Refrigerate in an airtight container for up to three days.
More Flavor
Add oregano, mint, or black pepper.
Crispier Chicken
Broil the chicken thighs for a few minutes before serving.
Make it a Meal
Serve with brown rice, cauliflower rice, roasted potatoes, or veggies, black beans, or on top of a salad.

 

Dr.Anita Moosavi. Toronto Weight Loss and Wellness Clinic

 

 

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Fertility and Weight Loss

Fertility and Weight Loss

Weight loss is about living a healthier, happier life. Why not? Losing those extra fats can indeed improve overall wellness. For many people – both men and women – it is also to increase the chances of getting pregnant. As it turned out, being overweight or obese has a negative implication on fertility. Read on to understand why that is so to have a better understanding of the science.

Infertility in Canada

The widely accepted definition of infertility is failure to conceive after one year or longer of unprotected sex. For women, fertility declines steadily with age. Hence the general recommendation for women 35 years or older is to consult with a reproductive endocrinologist if unable to get pregnant after six months of unprotected sex. Keep in mind, though, that infertility is not exclusive to women but also men.

In Canada, if you were to gather six couples together, there is a chance that one of them may have a fertility issue. 1 in 6 or 16% of couples experience infertility, a number that has doubled since the 80s (“Fertility”).

The cause of infertility in couples by gender are as follows:

  • 30% man
  • 40% woman
  • 20% both man and woman
  • 10% no reason found

There is no denying that infertility can take a toll on relationships, negatively impacting emotional and psychological well-being. The cost of treatments can also place a heavy burden on finances.

Overweight and Obesity in Canada

On weight, healthcare professionals refer to the body mass index (BMI), a calculation based on an individual’s height and body mass.

BMI = weight / height in meter squared

A person with BMI ranging from 18.5 to 24.9 is healthy and most ideal. If it falls between 25 to 29, that person is overweight. At 30 and above, that person is obese.

Overweight and obesity are a long-standing concern in Canada. Consider these figures in 2018 (“Overweight and Obese Adults, 2018”):

  • 8% or 7.3 million Canadian adults (18 years and older) are obese
  • 3% or 9.9 million Canadian adults are overweight

The numbers are staggering. A combined 63.1% of the population are either overweight or obese. Although there is no evidence, perhaps it could be one factor contributing to the continuous decline of the fertility rate in Canada (“Canada Fertility Rate 1950-2020”).

Canada’s fertility rate (births per woman) over the last four years:

  • 2021: 1.500
  • 2020: 1.509
  • 2019: 1.517
  • 2018: 1.525

A fertility rate of 2.1 is a must for the population to stay stable. It has been half a century since Canada met this threshold. At the present course of 1.5, the number of new births is not enough to replace the current population. It is the reason why the government introduced measures to accept 401,000 new permanent residents in 2021.

Fertility and Weight

Discussing the causes of infertility among men and women and treatment options is beyond this article’s scope. In particular, our focus is on weight (body fats) and how it affects fertility.

Infertility in Overweight or Obese Women

Overweight and obese women need more time to conceive. Furthermore, obesity increases the risk of infertility threefold compared to non-obese women (Silvestris et al.). The difficulties in getting pregnant are due to unhealthy weight, causing hormonal imbalances, inability to release an egg from ovaries, and menstrual disorders.

For women seeking assisted reproduction, excess weight negatively impacts intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in-vitro fertilization (IVF), and ovulation induction.

Note: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which causes low fertility or infertility, is an obesity-related condition.

Infertility in Overweight or Obese Men

Every single-point increase in BMI causes a 2% testosterone decrease (Travison et al.). The waistline is, too, a factor, with every 4-inch increasing the chances of low testosterone level by 75% (Svartberg et al.).

Compared to men with normal BMI, being overweight increases the chances of low sperm count (oligozoospermia) by 11%, no sperm in the ejaculate (azoospermia) by 39%. In obese men, the chances of low sperm count increase by 42%, and no sperm in the ejaculate by 81% (Sermondade). Mainly, this is due to a prime hormonal defect leading to the inability to maintain testosterone concentrations (Katib). Consequently, it negatively impacts the production of sperm.

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is another condition that may arise. For instance, having a BMI of 28 increases the chances of developing this condition by 90% (Garimella et al.).

infertility and weight

Weight Loss and Fertility

There are hundreds of studies on the negative impact of being overweight and obese on health, including fertility. The logical assumption is that for such people to be fertile, they have to lose weight. Indeed, a study shows that much. Losing even only 5% to 10% of body weight can already restore fertility (Balen and Anderson).

Particularly for women, PCOS can be the cause of overweight or obesity. The imbalance in reproductive hormones prevents ovaries from releasing an egg. For women trying to get pregnant, that difficulty does not end there. PCOS also causes insulin resistance that stops ovulation because the ovaries produce less estrogen and more testosterone.

With a BMI of 25 or above, weight loss greatly benefits women’s fertility – and men, too. It is also commonly believed that it helps improve the success rate of fertility treatments. However, recent studies suggest the improvements may not be as significant as previously thought (Gaskins). The focus, therefore, should not merely be about losing weight but also following a healthy diet. It is a must because there is also the entire pregnancy period to consider.

Citations

“Fertility.” Government of Canada, 2013, www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/fertility/fertility.html.

“Overweight and Obese Adults, 2018.” Statistics Canada, Government of Canada, 25 June 2019, www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/82-625-x/2019001/article/00005-eng.htm.

“Canada Fertility Rate 1950-2020.” Macrotrends, www.macrotrends.net/countries/CAN/canada/fertility-rate.

Silvestris, Erica, et al. “Obesity as Disruptor of the Female Fertility.” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 16, no. 1, 9 Mar. 2018, 10.1186/s12958-018-0336-z.

Travison, Thomas G., et al. “The Relative Contributions of Aging, Health, and Lifestyle Factors to Serum Testosterone Decline in Men.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 2, Feb. 2007, pp. 549–555, 10.1210/jc.2006-1859. Accessed 10 Dec. 2019.

Svartberg, Johan, et al. “Waist Circumference and Testosterone Levels in Community Dwelling Men. The Tromsø Study.” European Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 7, July 2003, pp. 657–663, link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FB%3AEJEP.0000036809.30558.8f, 10.1023/b:ejep.0000036809.30558.8f. Accessed 2 Nov. 2019.

Sermondade, Nathalie. “Obesity and Increased Risk for Oligozoospermia and Azoospermia.” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 172, no. 5, 12 Mar. 2012, p. 440, 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.1382. Accessed 9 Jan. 2021.

Katib, Atif. “Mechanisms Linking Obesity with Male Infertility.” Central European Journal of Urology, vol. 68, no. 1, 2015, 10.5173/ceju.2015.01.435.

Garimella, Pranav S., et al. “The Association between Body Size and Composition and Erectile Dysfunction in Older Men: Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 61, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 46–54, 10.1111/jgs.12073. Accessed 15 Oct. 2020.

Garimella, Pranav S., et al. “Association between Body Size and Composition and Erectile Dysfunction in Older Men: Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 61, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 46–54, 10.1111/jgs.12073. Accessed 15 Oct. 2020.

Balen, Adam H., and Richard A. Anderson. “Impact of Obesity on Female Reproductive Health: British Fertility Society, Policy and Practice Guidelines.” Human Fertility, vol. 10, no. 4, Jan. 2007, pp. 195–206, 10.1080/14647270701731290. Accessed 13 Dec. 2019.

Gaskins, Audrey J. “Recent Advances in Understanding the Relationship between Long- and Short-Term Weight Change and Fertility.” F1000Research, vol. 7, 26 Oct. 2018, p. 1702, 10.12688/f1000research.15278.1. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.

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